The digestive and respiratory system has a tubular structure. There is a single- or multi-layered cells that lay them inside (like the carpet we lay on the floor). In this layer, stalks or sessile bumps are formed. The polyps those are formed are mostly benign (95%) and usually detected incidentally.
Most polyps that develop on the wall of the gallbladder are benign. There are pseudopolyps those looks like real polyps on ultrasound (cholesterol polyps due to cholesterol accumulation and inflammation polyps that develop as a result of inflammatory attacks, etc.). In addition, structures such as fibroma, lipoma, hemangioma may also appear in polyp structure. The important thing is to be able to distinguish between benign polyps and polyps that are prone to cancer or cancer.
The age of the patient, the size and number of polyps or polyps are important in the treatment to be recommended. Size evaluation is made on the largest polyp. For polyps with a diameter of 1 cm or more, it is almost always recommended to remove the gallbladder due to the risk of cancer (cholecystectomy). Between 7-9 mm is considered a gray zone and follow-up or surgery can be chosen. Follow-up is generally recommended for polyps with a diameter of less than 7 mm. A single and large polyp detected in the gallbladder is alarming.
Although no clear cause has been identified, it is thought to be related to fat metabolism. For this reason, it is thought that a healthy diet with low fat content will have a preventive effect.
For polyps with suspected cancer or cancerous risk, cholecystectomy is performed with open or closed methods. The final diagnosis is made by pathological examination. If cancer is detected in the polyp, it is decided whether further treatment is required according to its stage.